Pedestrian Safety Guide and Countermeasure Selection System


Example of RTOR restriction during certain times. Source: Flickr - William Yurasko (2008)




Right-Turn-on-Red Restrictions

Prohibiting RTOR should be considered where exclusive pedestrian phases or high pedestrian volumes are present. The standard regulatory sign included in the MUTCD states NO TURN ON RED, but alternative sign options include a circular red icon or a larger 762-mm by 914-mm (30-in by 36-in) NO TURN ON RED sign, both of which improve conspicuity. For areas where a right-turn-on-red restriction is needed during certain times, time-of-day restrictions may be appropriate. A variable-message NO TURN ON RED sign is also an option.10


A permissible Right Turn on Red (RTOR) was introduced in the 1970s as a fuel-saving measure and has sometimes had detrimental effects on pedestrians. While the law requires motorists to come to a full stop and yield to cross-street traffic and pedestrians prior to turning right on red, many motorists do not fully comply with the regulations, especially at intersections with wide turning radii. Motorists are so intent on looking for traffic approaching on their left that they may not be alert to pedestrians approaching on their right. In addition, motorists usually pull up into the crosswalk to wait for a gap in traffic, blocking pedestrian crossing movements. In some instances, motorists simply do not come to a full stop.

One concern that comes up when RTOR is prohibited is that this may lead to higher right-turn-on-green conflicts when there are concurrent signals. The use of the leading pedestrian interval (LPI) can usually best address this issue (see Pedestrian Signal Phasing). Where pedestrian volumes are very high, exclusive pedestrian signals should be considered.


• Prohibiting RTOR is a simple, low-cost measure. Together with a leading pedestrian interval, the signal changes can benefit pedestrians with minimal impact on traffic.
• Part-time RTOR prohibitions during the busiest times of the day may be sufficient to address the problem.
• Signs should be clearly visible to right-turning motorists stopped in the curb lane at the crosswalk.
• RTOR restrictions are used at every intersection with crossing guards or with inadequate sight distances.
• RTOR restrictions should be used at school crossings.

Estimated Cost

The cost for a sign is approximately $200. Electronic signs are approximately $3,000 to install.

Case Studies