Pedestrian Safety Guide and Countermeasure Selection System

Crash Type Definitions

Backing Vehicle

The pedestrian was struck by a backing vehicle on a street, in a driveway, on a sidewalk, in a parking lot, or at another location.


The pedestrian was struck by a vehicle while: (1) crossing in front of a commercial bus stopped at a bus stop; (2) going to or from a school bus stop; or (3) going to or from, or waiting near a commercial bus stop.

Crossing Expressway

The pedestrian was struck while crossing a limited-access expressway or expressway ramp.


The pedestrian walked or ran into the roadway at an intersection or midblock location and was struck by a vehicle. The motorist’s view of the pedestrian may have been blocked until an instant before the impact.

Multiple Threat/Trapped

The pedestrian entered the roadway in front of stopped or slowed traffic and was struck by a multiple-threat vehicle in an adjacent lane after becoming trapped in the middle of the roadway.

Non-Roadway (Sidewalk, Driveway, Parking Lot, or Other)

The pedestrian was standing or walking near the roadway edge, on the sidewalk, in a driveway or alley, or in a parking lot, when struck by a vehicle.

Through Vehicle at Signalized Location

The pedestrian was struck at a signalized intersection or midblock location by a vehicle that was traveling straight ahead.

Through Vehicle at Unsignalized Location

The pedestrian was struck at an unsignalized intersection or midblock location. Either the motorist or the pedestrian may have failed to yield.

Turning Vehicle

The pedestrian was attempting to cross at an intersection, driveway, or alley and was struck by a vehicle that was turning right or left.

Unique Midblock (Mailbox, Ice Cream Vendor, Parked Vehicle)

The pedestrian was struck while crossing the road to/from a mailbox, newspaper box, or ice-cream truck, or while getting into or out of a stopped vehicle.

Walking Along Roadway

The pedestrian was walking or running along the roadway and was struck from the front or from behind by a vehicle.

Working/Playing in Road

A vehicle struck a pedestrian who was: (1) standing or walking near a disabled vehicle, (2) riding a play vehicle that was not a bicycle (e.g., wagon, sled, tricycle, skates), (3) playing in the road, or (4) working in the road.