A total of 67 engineering, education, and enforcement countermeasures are discussed in this chapter. The treatments and programs selected for inclusion in this document are those that have been in place for an extended period of time and/or have proven effective when this document was written. New countermeasures continue to be developed, implemented, and evaluated. Thus, practitioners should not necessarily limit their choices to those included here; this material is a starting point.
The cost estimates provided for each countermeasure are only preliminary estimates. While the costs provided here include furnishing and installation, costs can vary widely based on numerous factors, including: road conditions, quantity, materials, size and location of state and/or municipality, time of year, design costs, and inflation. Costs were compiled by reviewing bid sheets from 40 states for the years 2010-2012, and from targeted searches for the price of specific countermeasures. A countermeasure cost database for pedestrian (and bicycle) treatments can be found at www.pedbikeinfo.org/costpaper.
The effectiveness of each of the following countermeasures on pedestrian crashes and safety has been documented in a separate report, entitled "Evaluation of Pedestrian-Related Roadway Measures: A Summary of Available Research."
Along the Roadway
At Crossing Locations
Traffic CalmingCountermeasures include:
Traffic ManagementCountermeasures include:
Signals and Signs